Historical Monuments of Samarkand
Since the 9th-10th centuries, Samarkand became a cultural center of the Islamic East and the first capital of the Samanids. Ruins of the Samanid palace with carved panels were found in the western sector of Afrasiab. In the 9th-10th centuries the inner city occupied 220 hectares. The suburb with markets, mosques, baths and caravansaries adjoined it in the south. The city had lead water supply. Manufacturing of Chinese paper was developing. Numerous workshops using water mills aroused on the banks of the Siab.
At the 11th-13th centuries Samarkand became a capital of the western Qarakhanid state. It was newly walled. A palace of the Qarakhanids was built in the citadel. The tomb of Kusam ibn Abbas became a cultic place where mausoleum was built. At the beginning of the 13th century Khorezmshah ad took Samarkand and built a new palace instead of the Qarakhanids'. However, the state of Khorezmshahs was soon conquered by the Mongols. Chinggis-khan took Samarkand after short siege. The city suffered much due to Chinggisid internal wars in the second half of the 13th century. Afrasiab has been finally deserted.