Madrassahs of Ulugbek and Abdulaziz-khan. Memorial complex of Gijduvani, Bukhara
Ulugbek Madrassah (1417)
Madrassah of Uiugbeg in Bukhara was the first of three madrassah, constructed at grandson of Amir Temur, Uiugbeg (died in 1449). The other two were constructed in Samarkand and Gijduvan. Construction was finished in 1420. The building has two floors of hudjras (rooms for pupils), audiences and mosque. Portal, two-storied loggias and angular turrets decorate the facade. Originally madrassah had four domes and four minarets in corners. In 1585 the facades were restored and decorated with majolica. Remarkable is the inscription on the entrance door: "Aspiration to knowledge is a duty of each Muslim man and woman".
Madrassah of Abdulaziz-khan (1652)
Madrassah of Abdulaziz-khan was constructed in the middle of the 17th century opposite to Ulugbeg Madrassah and surpassed it in scale and decor. Abdulaziz (died in 1681) was a member of Bukhara Astarkhanid dynasty (1601-1747). This is traditional madrassah with two floors of hudjras around the courtyard and mosque on the central axis. The high portal exposes pictures of fantastic birds flying to the sun. Stalactites fill up its arch. Mosaic with characteristic motif of blossoming bush in vase makes external decor. Under-dome stalactites, pendentives and paintings decorate the interior.
Amir Kulal Mausoleum (beginning of the 21st c.)
Sa'id Amir Kulal (died in 1370) was born and died in Suhor village near Bukhara. His father moved to Bukhara from Medina. "Khadjagan" sheikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi was his teacher. In the middle of the 14th century Amir Kulal was one of the most significant Central Asian clerics. He was a spiritual ancestor of Amir Temur and his teacher Shamsaddin Kulal. The fact that he took part in education of Bahaaddin Naqshband, the founder of "naqshbandyyah" order is recognized as one of Amir Kulala's major merits. The mausoleum above Amir Kulal's tomb was built at the beginning of the 21st century for account of charity.
Memorial complex of Gijduvani (beginning of the 21st c.)
Khodja Abdal-Haiik Gijduvani (died in 1180/1220) was born and died in the village of Gijduvan near Bukhara. He was a pupil of outstanding Sufi Khodja Usuf al-Hamadani and the founder of Central Asian Sufi school of "khadjagan" - "way of Khodjas (teachers)". Adherents of "khadjagan" had to recognize freewill poverty, ascetics and celibacy as well as to abstain from contacts with authorities. Sufi Amir Kulal, Bahaaddin Naqshband and Khodja Akhrar belonged to this tradition. Memorial complex of al-Gijduvani was constructed at the beginning of the 21st century beside Ulugbeg Madrassah that was built near the tomb of the great Sufi teacher.