Moscow - Capital of Russia
Moscow history. Moscow pictures
"What surge can start in every Russian's heart…" Many historians believe Moscow is named after the Moskva River. However there are a lot of other suggestions, according to one of them the River was named after the city. As per this assumption, "Moscow" means a "stone shelter" in ancient Slave language. The root of "mosc" is a flint, "cow" means to hide.
The year of Moscow foundation is considered to be 1147 due to the first mention in records about this city. At the same time scientists presume that first settlements on the area of Moscow had been appeared much earlier - in the 3-4 millennium BC. The founder of Moscow is allegedly Yuri Dolgoruki - Prince of Suzdal. Moscow becomes the center of principality in 1260, from 1460 - it is already a center of Moscow Rus. Moscow becomes the capital of Russia in 1918.
The National Coat of Arms of the Russian FederationThe National Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation is a rectangular red heraldic shield with a silver horseman wearing a blue cloak and mounted on a silver horse with silver harness - Saint George Conqueror. With his silver spear he is slaying the black dragon. The character of a horseman-dragon fighter has become particularly popular in Rus in the XIV-XV centuries. He was a symbol of people's defender and fighter with foreign oppressors. The first official coat of arms of Moscow appeared in 1781. That coat of arms served as a base for restoration of current coat of arms of Moscow in 1993. Age-old legend says that Moscow is based on seven hills. Reasons for this assumption are not convincing enough though as there are no proper hills in Moscow - only small uplands can be found here. Territory position of Moscow has anciently been undoubtedly advantageous in comparison with other Russian cities, at the same time the city needed reliable protection since the time of its foundation. Hordes of nomads were a permanent threat from the south, Polish and Lithuanian conquerors threatened from the west. Thus, well-known fortress-monasteries have arisen on the approaches to Moscow - Novodevichiy, Simonov and Sasso-Andronikov monasteries. Mongols and Tatars, Polish and Lithuanian troops, French and German - all foreign invaders trying to conquer, overcome and subdue Moscow were completely and unconditionally defeated. That time difficult for the Russian capital has been recorded in a history and was memorized in devoted places and architecture of the city.
From the beginning of the XV century population of Moscow exceeded such biggest European cities as Paris, London and Berlin. By the end of the XIX century with abolition of serfdom and advancement of capitalism Moscow has become the largest trade and industrial center, by that time there were more than 20 trade and industrial enterprises in the city. The industry of Moscow was based on wood processing, textiles, food and building manufactures. After the October Revolution of 1917 machinery and electrical-technical industry had begun to rapidly develop in Moscow. Much attention was paid to production of consumer goods that has made Moscow a powerful industrial center. During the period of reformation in democracy of the country activity of industrial enterprises of Moscow was stopped, a lot of old plants were closed or moved out of the city's borders that had favorably affected ecological situation of the Moscow.
Over many centuries Moscow has been rightfully deserving a status of the main city of Russia. It was there where Russian art, science and culture formed its roots from. The first newspaper, theater and university have been arisen there.
Even nowadays Moscow is a center of culture of Russian nation. Million people from the different corners of the world are aspiring to visit Moscow in order to see with their own eyes the most ancient architect monuments and historical places of world significance. Red Square, the Kremlin, the Resurrection gate of the Kremlin with the Holy Virgin "Iverskaya" chapel and Saint Basil's cathedral constantly attract guests of the capital. What a large number of other precious historical places are in Moscow! The Arch of Triumph, Novodevichy monastery, Moscow State University, the Pokrov monastery in Files, The Memorial Victory complex on Poklonnaya Mountain, recreated Church of Christ Savior on the Kropotkinsk Quay - all this is just an incomplete list of historical sightseeing of one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The process of restoring and keeping historical monuments in proper condition has been continuously going on in Moscow.
During the Soviet era immense construction work used to be held in Moscow which had formed in some extent the image of the city. Today growth of Moscow is not less fast and dynamic. Today it is an enormous megacity with many millions population. At the same time, despite transformations and modifications of modern life some features remain unchangeable such as landscape combining park areas, hills and ribbon of the Moskva River as well as a ring structure of Moscow which is still the same. Quiet and cozy small streets and broad avenues with life in full swing make up a wonderful combination and form unique and many-sided image of the city.
A lot of measures are taken to make not only native citizens of Moscow but also guests of the city feel welcomed and content on the streets of this amazing city. New comfortable hotels, restaurants, and cozy cafes and passengers' areas - all this makes Moscow become more and more attractive for tourists. What well-known museums and exposition halls you can visit when arriving to Moscow! This is the Tretyakov Gallery, the Manege and the museum of Pushkin. Various international competitions, big festivals, Olympiads and contests on different kinds of sport are regularly held in the capital. There are a lot of theatres, libraries, Research Institutes in Moscow and the center of the Russian Academy of Science is also located here.
Moscow is the large transport cluster. Airports, river ports, railway and highways and subway are concentrated here.
Divided into two-side parts Moscow is crossed by the Moskva River the total length of which is 502 kilometers in the middle current. Dozens of other rivers cross the capital area as well.
Water bus travel remains unforgettable impressions for tourists. However even more impressions can be received after travelling into amazing and romantic world of bridges.
You will be unwillingly surrounded by exciting and romantic energy having walked on the bridge of Bogdan Khmelnicky. This is not occasional as that was the bridge where the world record on kisses had been beaten on February 16, 2002. More than two thousand people had been kissing simultaneously on that bridge.
If you come on the Patriarchy Bridge by chance or not one day you will be surprised with numerous locks hanging on the tracery fence of the bridge. The reason is that a legend has been recently appeared in Moscow according to which engaged couples should hang a lock to the fence of the Patriarchy Bridge in a day of their marriage. A key should be thrown to the river. The engaged couples make this custom with intention to be together all lifelong.
Despite its status of megacity Moscow is still one of the greenest capitals in the world. Astonishing with their beauty parks and forest areas are favorite rest places of Moscovites and guests of the capital will not be indifferent as well.
The Neskuchny Garden praised by poets is a wonderful and delightful the most ancient park of Moscow! There was a manor "Neskuchnoe" of Prince Trubetskoy which name was taken for the park. As addition the park had received from the manor numerous small bridges, arch bridge, small house of Orlov Count and brick pavilion "Hunter House". The Neskuchny Garden is favorite rest place of Moscow citizens. We insistently recommend to guests of Moscow to attend this beautiful and shady park as big as forest. Its unique atmosphere will give you unforgettable impressions in any season.
"Sokolniki" park is rightfully one of the most beautiful places of Moscow. In due time that was a place where the Great Queen Elizaveta Petrovna invited guests for tea drinking in high-society, Peter I used to hold promenades in May season and Ivan the Terrible used to hunt there. Well-known Sirenevyi Garden, exposition complex with 33.000 sq.meters total area, skating ring, rosaries, restaurants and cafes will be exposed for you if you intend to visit this fantastic and inimitable "Sokolniki" park!
Did you happen to stay in Moscow in winter and would you like to have summertime at once? No worry! There is everything in the megacity. Moscow would be glad to offer you a piece of summer! Moscow aqua park "Kva-Kva" is at your disposal. Here you will be able to enjoy watching beautiful waterfalls, swimming in wave pool like in the sea and attending day-spa. There is the only "Tsunami" mountain in Russia designed especially for adventure seekers, going down from which will ensure a strong thrust of adrenaline. Admirers of balneary will have Russian baths at their disposal, Finland sauna and even Turkish hamam. You will not leave the place in hanger as there is a wonderful bar and restaurant in the aqua park. Have an enjoyable time!
Would you like to have a bird's-eye view of Moscow? This is possible for sure! You should easily go up to the Vorobyovy Mountains and then you will open an awesome panorama of Moscow. Marina Tsvetayeva, Boris Pasternak and other famous poets praised the Vorobyovy Mountains in their poems. Perhaps, you will have same desire to change your prosaic manner to the poetic rhythm when you see the silver light of the Moskva River, golden iridescent of the cupolas, rush of the passersby and car flows on bustling avenues of Moscow as well as coziness and calmness of Moscow alleys. The mountains were named after the Vorobyovo rural area.
Walking around Moscow in the summer, you will not be able to pass by without trying to try "vitamins health" - such names were attributed to fountains by scientists. You are likely to receive not only coolness but also positive emotions and particular energy if you stay nearby one of the magnificent fountains of Moscow.
The most ancient fountain of Moscow is located on the Square in front of the Bolshoi Theatre. It was built by famous architect Ivan Vitaly in 1835. The biggest fountain of Moscow named "Snail" is located on the Manegnaya Square. Theatre admirers are met by the fountain "Turandot Princess" proudly standing and functioning during summer period on the Old Arbat nearby the Vakhtangov Theatre. Amazing Apollo plays a harp which strings are made of water trickles - you can admire this unique fountain at the Garden "Aquarium". Today the whole number is presented by more than two hundred fountains which seeing once is better than hearing twice. However there is a fountain that should be particularly mentioned. This is the original fountain - rotunda which had been built by 200 years of the great Russian poet - Pushkin A. at the Nikitsky Gates and is named "Alexander and Natalie". Ther is a legend according to which a drink of water from this fountain promises loving couples supernatural bliss. You can believe the legend or not but it is the only fountain in Moscow where drinking water runs.
Moscow is a city of theatres. Many people arrive to Moscow particularly to attend this or that theatre. Recent time theatres rejoice Moscovites and guests of the capital with originality of ideas and diversity of performances.
More than one and a half million of tourists and business people visit Moscow every year. Cozy hotels are cheerfully open for them because everything has been meticulously designed to make guests of the capital feel comfortable. Restaurants, pubs and cafes with their unique and exquisite interiors like that reminding of a truly Royal Palace or a place where you can sink in inimitable exotic world - all of them are amazing due to various menu and highest service quality which is not worse than that of Europe. Currently, there is more than three thousands of public catering in Moscow where you can enjoy not only Russian kitchen but also try diverse meals of the world nations as well as spend wonderful time.
Welcome to one of the most beautiful cities of the planet - Moscow city!