The first mention of Tashkent (earlier known as Shash, Chach, and Binkent) dates back to the 2nd century B.C., when Tashkent had a favorable location on the Great Silk Road. Conquered by Kangiuy (Khoresm) in the 1st c B.C., the original citadel was destroyed.
Uzbekistan. History of Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan
In the 1st-3rd c. B.C. the military camp of Chach was located here.
During the Kushan period, the city flourished throughout the 3rd and 4th centuries.
In the 7th c. Shash was the place where the Sogdian and Turkic cultures met, though it was later incorporated into the Arabic Caliphate and its capital was razed.
In the 8th c. Chach joined Ilaque, known for its huge gold and silver mines. Its epic name is "The turquoise mine".
In the 9th c. the largest mint in the region was located on the territory of Ilaque.
In the 10th c. there was a settlement named Nazartepa in the northern part of Tashkent.
In the 10-11th cc. Tashkent became the leading producer of Turkestan fabrics.
Binkent, the second name of Tashkent, (Shashkent) appeared in the 11th c.
In 1220 Chach was conquered by the armies of Ghengis Khan.
At the end of the 13th c. the city grew to be the biggest on the Silk Road.
In the 14th c. (the era of Tamerlane (Temur)) the city was renamed Shakhruhia in honor of Temur's son.
On the threshold of the 15th c. the city was annexed by Ulughbek's empire.
In the 15-16th c. buildings typical of the Temurid era appeared in the city's architecture.
At the beginning of the 16th c. Tashkent became a part of the Shaibanid State.
In the second half of the 16th c. Tashkent was integrated into the Khanate of Bukhara.
In the 16th c. the building of madrahssas and mausoleums completed Tashkent's architecture, but the whole of the Khanate was involved in a dynastic war.
In the 19th c. Kokand ruler Alimkhan captured Tashkent.
At the end of the 19th c. Tsarist Russia conquered the Turkestan region (1881-1886). The construction of the first railway line from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed. Tashkent again became a crossroads of trade (North, South, West and East).
Tashkent is among those cities which are famous for their exceptionally valuable architectural heritage. There are many interesting monuments preserved from the Middle Ages, buildings from the 19th c. erected by the architects A. Benoua, V. Gueintselman, and A. Makarov according to European traditions, and modern buildings which combine the latest architectural achievements with national ornamentation, local picturesque decor and Oriental architectural traditions. However, unlike the other capitals of Central Asia, the architecture of Tashkent has never included buildings typical of Samarkand, Bukhara, and Khiva. Tashkent architecture was different, being of its own school. Tashkent has been more commercially oriented, as trade buildings have predominated in its architecture. The most important monuments date back to the 16th c., the "golden age" of the city's history. Among them are - the Koukeldash Madrassah, the Barak-Khan Madrassah complex, the Suyunige-Khan and the Khaffal Shashi Mausoleums, the Yunus-Khan and the Kaldyrgach-Biya Mausoleums. Among the buildings of the late 19th c. - early 20th c. is the Palace of Grand Duke Nickolas Konstantinovich Romanov, Girls' and Boys' Schools, the Technical High School, and the Government Building, the Kirche.
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